Normally, for a sperm to fertilize an egg, it should have a normal oval head, neck and a tail. Teratospermia or teratozoospermia is a condition characterized by the presence of large numbers of sperm with an abnormal appearance in a man’s semen. When more than 60% of the sperm have malformations, it can interfere with fertility; A normal sperm has an oval-shaped head, a well-defined cap (acrosome) that covers part of the head, and a single midpiece and tail. During the production of sperm in the testicle (which takes about 78to90 days!), defects often occur. The presence of abnormally-shaped sperm can negatively affect fertility by reducing sperm motility and/or preventing sperm from penetrating the ovum. Achieving a pregnancy may be difficult. Many infertile men have sperm samples which have low sperm counts, with poor motility and many abnormally shaped sperms. This is called oligoasthenoteratozoospermia
The causes of TratospermiaThe causes of (teratospermia) teratozoospermia are unknown in most cases. However, Hodgkin’s disease, coeliac disease, and Crohn’s disease may contribute in some instances. Metabolic and hormonal imbalances are common culprits, as they can interfere with the process of sperm maturation, and may create abnormalities like unusually large or small heads or malformed tails, small sperm, large sperm, and sperm with defects in the head, tail, and mid-piece. In cases of globozoospermia (sperm with round heads), the Golgi apparatus is not transformed into the acrosome that is needed for fertilization
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